EFFECT OF NITROGEN Diet AND GROWTH Government bodies ON CROP GROWTH Characteristics IN BLACK GRAM (Vigna m

EFFECT OF NITROGEN Diet AND GROWTH Government bodies ON CROP GROWTH Characteristics IN BLACK GRAM (Vigna mungo L.) Hepper. K.Krishna Surendar*, Mallika Vanagamudi and H.Vijayaraghavan Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Farming College,Coimbatore-3 ABSTRACT Within the experiment carried out throughout This summer to October, 2007 to look at the result of nitrogen diet and growth government bodies on dry matter accumulation, CGR, NAR, SLW and LAI in black gram variety CO-5. Basal use of N P K and urea two percent was common for the remedies. In T3 an addition dose of nitrogen @ 25 kg ‘-1 was handed. The foliar spray was handed at 25 DAS and ten days following the first spray. The basal use of nitrogen 25kg ‘-1 with foliar spray of urea 2% and .1 parts per million brassinolide considerably elevated the dry matter accumulation. Other growth characteristics via, LAI, CGR, NAR, and SLW elevated using the basal use of nitrogen 25kg ‘-1 with foliar spray of urea 2% and .1 parts per million brassinolide as in comparison with other remedies. Key Phrases: Nitrogen diet, plant growth government bodies LAI, CGR, NAR, SLW, dry matter accumulation.

INTRODUCTION Black gram is really a broadly grown grain legume and goes towards the family fabaceae and assumes considerable importance from the purpose of food and dietary security. It’s a short duration crop appropriate for multiple popping systems and intercropping. . The typical productivity of pulses in Tamil Nadu is all about (432kg ‘-1) that is really low when in comparison to Indian average of 610 kg ‘-1. The key factors which lessen the Black gram yield are, indeterminate in the flowering and fruiting habits and there’s a contest for available assimilates between vegetative and reproductive sinks. There’s limitation of source (leaves) particularly at flowering and fruiting stage. Hence, there’s a necessity to enhance Leaf Area Index, Crop Rate Of Growth, Internet Assimilation Rate and particular Leaf Weight. As being a C3 plant, CGR and RGR are relatively under cereal products. Aside from this genetic constitute, the main physiological constraints restricting its production is flower drop and fruit drop (Ojeaga and Ojehomon, 1972). Therefore, present study was carried out to look at the result of nitrogen diet and plant growth government bodies around the regulating growth characteristics of black gram. The study experiment was completed at millet Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Farming College, Coimbatore throughout This summer to October, 2007. The experimental website is situated at 11o E longitude and 77o N latitude within an altitude of 426.8m above MSL. The soil was sandy loam in texture getting 27.four percent, PH 8.7, EC .22 dSm-1, 10.three percent mud, 10.seven percent silt, 22.6% clay, available N,P,K are 207, 21, 554 kg ‘-1. The experiment was organized in randomized block design with three replications. Nine remedies were taken, T1 (control), T2 (N 25 kg ‘-1 Urea 2% NAA 40ppm), T3 (N 50 kg ‘-1 CCC 200 parts per million), T4 (N 25 kg ‘-1 Urea 2% CCC 200ppm), T5 (N 25 kg ‘-1 Urea 2% Humic acidity .1%), T6 (N 25 kg ‘ ‘-1 Urea 2% Salicylic acidity 100 parts per million) T7 (N 25 kg ‘ ‘-1 Urea 2% Brassinosteriod .1 parts per million), T8 (N 25 kg ‘ ‘-1 Urea 2% ZnSO4 .5% FeSO4 .5% Borax .2%), T9 (N 25 kg ‘-1 water spray), were enforced at 25 DAS and ten days following the first spray. Dry matter accumulation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves and coffee pods) was recorded at vegetative, flowering, pod filling and harvest stages from five plants consecutively. The mean monthly minimum and maximum temperature throughout the crop season from 23.1o C to 29.6o C correspondingly. Leaf area was recorded by utilizing leaf area meter (Model LICOR 3100). The samples were oven dried at 70oC for around 72 hrs and dry weight was recorded. Leaf Area Index, Crop Rate Of Growth, Internet Assimilation Rate, Specific Leaf Weight were calculated by using the formula of Williams (1946), Pearce et al. (1968), Watson (1956) and Gregory et al. (1917).

RESULT AND DISCUSSION Basal use of nitrogen 25 kg ‘-1 with foliar spray of urea 2% and .1 parts per million brassinolide enhanced dry matter accumulation by 25 percent over control in the final stage from the crop (table 1). Besides laser hair removal, CCC 200ppm urea two percent with normal N 25 kg ‘-1 also found better in enhancing the entire dry matter production by 18 percent over control. The physiological parameters viz. Leaf Area Index, Crop Rate Of Growth, Internet Assimilation Rate, Specific Leaf Weight were considerably affected by the use of nitrogen 25kg ‘-1 with foliar spray of urea 2% and .1 parts per million brassinolide at flowering and pod filling stage from the crop (35 and forty percent, 30 and 33%, 20 and 28 percent, 12 and 11.six percent ). Basal use of nitrogen 25kg ‘-1 with foliar spray of urea 2% and .1 parts per million brassinolide at flowering and pod filling stages put together considerably better over control. Specific leaf weight is really a way of measuring leaf thickness continues to be reported to possess a strong positive correlation with leaf photosynthesis of countless crops reported by Bowes et al. (1972). Thicker leaves might have mere quantity of mesophyll cells rich in density of chlorophyll and for that reason, possess a greater photosynthetic capacity than thinner leaves (Craufurd et al. 1999). Watson (1958) recommended the reason for the reduction in internet assimilation rate with elevated leaf area in crop plants was because of mutual shading from the leaves which may reduce the leaf photosynthesis. Crop production is dependent upon crop rate of growth like a purpose of light interception through the leaf section of a crop (Whigham, 1983). Leaf area index is among the principle factors impacting on canopy internet photosynthesis from the crop plants (Hansen, 1972). Better foliage retention with postponed senescence was credited to upkeep of greater leaf area index if the crop exposed towards the treatment rich in nitrogen dose.

Stages

Remedies TOTAL DRY MATTER PRODUCTION (g plant-1)LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI)SPECIFIC LEAF WEIGHT (SLW) (mg cm2) VSFSPFSHSVSFSPFSHSVSFSPFSHS T11.833.838.8913.680.280.611.351.184.7612.0612.5510.90 T21.944.210.0515.520.320.711.701.385.4912.0912.6112.40 T31.964.4210.3115.650.320.791.871.625.9913.4613.6512.78 T42.064.7110.4316.160.320.761.801.595.7012.7013.0512.71 T51.883.979.5415.440.310.661.591.495.6712.0412.6912.53 T61.873.969.7914.680.310.691.641.415.6512.0312.6811.31 T72.124.8410.5817.140.340.821.891.656.0113.5213.6813.08 T81.924.149.414.430.320.721.761.505.6812.5412.7312.60 T91.854.169.2914.580.300.651.501.335.3512.0612.5611.04 Mean1.944.259.8115.280.310.711.671.465.6112.4712.8812.09 SEd0.080.170.410.640.010.020.060.060.230.520.540.50 Compact disc (P=.05).170.370.871.360.030.060.140.120.491.121.161.07 Versus-VEGETATIVE STAGE, FS-FLOWERING STAGE, PFS-POD FILLING STAGE, HS-HARVEST STAGE. Table 1. Effect of Nitrogen Diet And Growth Government bodies On TDMP, LAI and SLW VEGETATIVE STAGE, FS-FLOWERING STAGE, PFS-POD FILLING STAGE, HS-HARVEST STAGE. Table 2. Effect of Nitrogen Diet And Growth Government bodies On CGR And NAR

Stages

Remedies CROP Rate Of Growth (CGR) (g m-2 day-1)Internet ASSIMILATION RATE (NAR) (mg centimetres-2 day-1) VG-FSFS-PFSPFS-HSVG-FSFS-PFSPFS-HS T10.541.221.020.550.500.48 T20.561.281.070.600.580.57 T30.711.621.200.650.640.61 T40.601.531.210.640.600.59 T50.611.441.030.590.570.55 T60.551.511.090.570.540.52 T70.781.841.360.660.650.63 T80.591.421.010.620.590.56 T90.601.581.040.560.520.50 Mean0.611.491.110.610.580.56 SEd0.020.060.040.020.020.02 Compact disc (P=.05).050.130.080.050.050.05 Reference:

Bowes, G.W., L.Orgen and R.H. Hageman. 1972. Light saturated photosynthesis rate, RuBp Carboxylase activity and particular leaf weight in soybean grown under different light extremes. Crop Sci., 12: 77-79 Craufurd, P.C., T.R. Wheelee, R.H. Ellis, R.J. Summerfield and J.H. Williams. 1999. effect of temperature and water deficit on water use efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination and particular leaf weight in peanut. Crop.Sci, 39: 136-142. Gregory, P.J, G.E. Kidd and C. West. 1917. Growth analysis. In: opening plant physiology (Noggle, G.R. and Fritz. eds). Prentice hall, New Delhi, pp: 586-588. Hansen, W.R. 1972. Internet photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of area growth soybean the canopy.Ph.D thesis, Iowa Condition college library, USA. Ojeaga, O.O, and Ojehoman. 1972. Fruit abscission in cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L).J.Exp.Bot 23: 751-761 Pearce, R.B., R.H. Brown and R.E.Balaster. 1968. Photosynthesis of alfalfa leaves as affected by atmosphere. Crop sci., 36: 677-680. Watson, D.J. 1958.The dependence of internet assimilation rate on leaf area index. Ann. Bot., 23:37-54 Watson, D.J. 1956. Comparative physiological studies around the development of area crops. Variation in internet assimilation rate and leaf area between species and types and within and between years. Ann.Bot., 11:41-46. Whighams, D.K. 1983. Soybean. In: proc. Of symp. On potential productivity of area crops under different atmosphere. IRRI, Los Banos, 22-26: 205-225. Williams. S.R.F. 1946. Techniques of growth analysis. In: plant photosynthetic production manual and techniques, Drow, Jenk N.U Marketers. The Hague. pp. 348-391.

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