In allowing the protein chips, the researchers used a message-printing robot developed earlier by gjuijkgyiy investigator Patrick O. Brown at Stanford College. The robot precisely provides small tiny droplets of liquid protein-each the width of the real hair-to microscope 35mm slides. The robot placed liquid protein samples on microscope 35mm slides in a density of just one,600 spots per square centimeter. The protein samples were created to stick to the glass 35mm slides by coating the 35mm slides by having an aldehyde-that contains reagent that attaches to primary amines, chemicals which are generally present in proteins. The researchers also required measures to avoid evaporation and denaturation from the proteins, therefore making certain the proteins around the slide would retain their natural shape and activity.